• the • ill • effects • of • mixing • with • kuffar •

Shaykh Al-Islām Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allāh be merciful to him, said,“The Seventh point of consideration: Is that which I proved in the point of the basis of imitation, and that is that Allāh, Ta’ālā, created the Children of Ādam, rather, the rest of the creations, upon interaction between the two similar things. And the greater the similarity, the more complete the interactions in etiquettes and characteristics are, until the matter leads to none of the two being distinguishable from the other, except with the eye alone.And since humans share a specific species, interaction within it is stronger.

Subsequently, he and the rest of the animals share the middle species, [1] so there is no escape from there being some type of interaction according to the amount (of similarity between the human and the other animal).

Next, he and plants share the far species, [2] for example, so there is no escape from there being some sort of interaction.

And due to this fundamental, emulation and influence takes place amongst the Children of Ādam, and each of them takes from the manners the other, in collaboration and association.

And likewise, if the human associates with a certain type of animal, it acquires some of its behaviours. [3] And due to this, arrogance and boastfulness has become (prevalent) amongst the people of camels. And serenity has become (prevalent) with the people of sheep. [4] And the cameleers and those who tend to mules have within them blameworthy behaviors of camels and mules, and likewise those who tend to dogs. And the human animal (i.e. an animal that is constantly around humans) ended up with some of the manners of humans such as association, friendliness, and rarely fleeing (when approached).

So imitation and resemblance in outward matters necessitates imitation and resemblance in inward matters, by way of acquirement and hidden gradualness.

And we have seen that the Jews and Christians who have had social interaction with the Muslims are less in kufr than others, just as we have seen the Muslims who have a great deal of social interaction with the Jews and the Christians are lower in Īmān than others who have only seen Islām. [5]

And sharing in outward fashions also necessitates compatibility and unity, even if the place and time are distant, so this is also a matter which is felt.

So imitating them in their celebrations, even in something small, is grounds for a type of acquirement of their manners, which are cursed. And anything which the assumption is that it will lead to a hidden corruption which cannot be gauged, the ruling is based upon it, and the forbiddance revolves around it.

So we say: Imitating them externally is a cause and something of which the assumption is that it will lead to imitating them in the essence of their blameworthy etiquettes and actions, even in the exact beliefs, and the effects of that are not apparent and nor gaugeable.

And the corruption itself which takes place due to the imitation might not be apparent nor accurately measured. And it might be hard or (even) impossible to remove it after it takes place, if it is (even) discerned. And everything that is a cause for the likes of this corruption, then the Legislator forbids it, as was indicated by the fixed fundamentals.”

Iqtidhā’ As-Sirāt Al-Mustaqīm”, pg.252-254.

————-
[1] Trans. Note: Referring to the scientific classification which humans share with all other animals, which is called a Kingdom, and the Kingdom which is shared is Animalia.
[2] Trans. Note: Possibly referring to the scientific classification which humans share with plants, which is called a Domain, and the domain which humans share with plants is called Eukarya.
[3] Trans. Note: This is evident even to extremes in cases of feral children who have been totally or partially raised by animals. They tend to retain many animal behaviours, if not most, and cannot be successfully reintegrated into society. Some even return to the wild on their own. There have been cases reported of humans being raised by stray dogs, bears, wolves, jackals, leopards, gazelles, ostriches, goats, cows, monkeys, and other animals.
[4] Trans. Note: The following Hadīth was mentioned at this point by Khālid ‘Abdul-Latīf As-Saba’ Al-‘Alamī, who performed the verification of this book, though the exact phrasing was taken from “Sahīh Al-Bukhārī”, not the one he mentioned. From Abū Hurayrah, may Allāh be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allāh, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said, “The head of kufr is towards the East. And pride and boastfulness is (prevalent) in the people of horses, camels and oxen; those who live in shag houses (Bedouins). And tranquility is (prevalent) in the people of sheep.” Agreed upon.
[5] Trans. Note: It is more likely, based on Shar’ī then historical evidences, that Muslims are more negatively affected by kuffār, than kuffār are positively affect by Muslims. This is due to the fact that the Nafs of humans is more inclined to bad than good, as Allāh, Ta’ālā, mentioned,

إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلاَّ مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّيَ
Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whom He wills). (Sūrat Yūsuf, 53)

Also, based on the pressures exerted by the shayātīn of humans and Jinn, and the closeness of the shaytān to humans, as in the Hadīth of Safiyyah Bint Huyay, may Allāh be pleased with her, that the Prophet, صلى الله عليه وسلم, said,“Verily, the shaytān flows in the Son of Ādam the flow of blood.” Agreed upon. Also, there appears to be a correlation between the effects of one group upon the other, and who is in power. Muslims living in times and places where kuffār are in power are more likely to be effected by them, and vice versa.

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